Cerium OXide Rare Earth Grade
More than 350 tons of rare earth oxides used yearly for glass making. Cerium concentrate makes up the biggest share of the market. This is in the form of a mixed rare earth material containing about 88% Ce02/Total REO and the balance is made up of La203, Pr6O11, and Nd203. The ratios will vary with the supplier and raw material source. Lanthanum oxide has the next largest market followed by 95% to 99.9% purity cerium oxide, neodymium oxide and small amounts of praseodymium and erbium oxides.
Uses in glass polishing and ceramics are the largest market for REE commodities by weight. Substantial amounts of cerium concentrates and cerium oxide are used in glass-polishing applications. The automotive catalyst industry also consumes significant REEs by weight, using cerium carbonate and cerium oxide in the catalyst substrate and as a component of the converter’s oxidizing catalyst system.
Glass-ceramic compositions use in dental restorations to mimic closely the appearance of natural teeth. Cerium oxide is added in small amounts, 0.1 wt %, to fluorosilicate materials to provide required fluorescence.
In ophthalmic glass production, the cerium-titania complex is combined with manganese to produce the pink U. V. absorptive tinted glasses. The manganese which normally gives a purple color is toned down with the yellow color giving a yellowish pink. In addition, the cerium absorption in the U. V. is an important property of the glass.
Raw Material for Separation of Rare Earths:
Lanthanum, Neodymium, praseodymium, erbium and yittrium metals and its oxides are extracted from Rare Earths. These are expensive compounds.
Catalysts for pollution control; catalytic converter catalyst substrate; rechargeable batteries; fuel cells; colored plastics.
Oxygen sensors; structural ceramics for bearings; jet engine coatings; investment molds; refractories; pigments.
Oil refinery fluid cracking catalysts; pharmaceuticals; water treatment; catalysts; moisture control, dryers, and detection.
Lasers; missile guidance and control; visual displays; radar; electronic countermeasures; communication; shielding.
Capacitors; cathodes; electrodes; semiconductors; thermistors; traveling wave tubes (TWTs); radio frequency circulators and toroids; yttrium iron garnet (YIG) ferrites.
Polishing compounds; decolorizing; colorizing; increase refraction; decrease dispersion; radiation stabilization; absorber Illumination Trichromatic fluorescent lamps; mercury lamps; carbon arc lamps; gas mantles; auto headlamps; long-glow phosphors.
Speakers and headphones; linear motors; antilock braking systems; tape and disk drives; gauges; electric motors; pumps; ignition Magnetostrictive Sonar systems; precise actuators; precision positioning; vibratory screens; speakers; ultrasonics to kill bacteria.
Contrast agents; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); positron emission tomography (PET); radioisotope tracers and emitters.
Alloying agents in aluminum, magnesium, iron, nickel, and steel alloys; superalloys; pyrophoric alloys; lighter flints; armaments.
Cathode-ray tubes (CRTs); fluorescent lighting; radar and cockpit displays; x-ray intensifying screens; temperature sensors.
Simulated gemstones; textiles; magnetic refrigeration; hydrogen fuel.